Advancing Manufacturing

Micreo finds Defence best form of business attack

EXTRA >> By Mike Sullivan

MICREO Limited, the Australian designer and manufacturer of sophisticated military microwave and photonic defence systems, is a relatively small company supplying a big and increasingly demanding world.

Tim Shaw, Micreo’s managing director, presented a fascinating address to the Innovation Series luncheon in Brisbane in late 2014, outlining how – even though his company operates in a rare environment – its challenges and keys to success are still those of most small businesses and manufacturers in Australia. 

Micreo has had to find ways to manufacture ever-more efficiently and effectively; it has had to employ strategies to manage currency fluctuations, especially as many of its major clients are in the US; and most important it has had to develop a culture of innovation and excellence.

“In a world in which there are big fish and little fish, how can you as a little fish find your lunch and not become lunch?” Mr Shaw opened his address to business, government and research leaders at the Innovation Series.

“I looked at particular challenges that we, as a small company, have faced as a result of being where we are in the world and in trying to do what we wanted to do.

“First and foremost, when we started the business … the A$ was at 53 US cents. You all know where it got to …. Essentially we compete in a world market, even in Australia, because our prices are linked to the world market … and the trade barriers just aren’t there, the way they would have been 30 or 40 years ago,” he said.

“Secondly, our salaries increased at a steady rate over that period – and even throughout the GFC (global financial crisis). If you look at what happened in the US, salaries from that point on went down even … or, at least, remained flat. I am talking particularly about manufacturing labour.

“The result is that we went from having a significant cost advantage in our labour to having a significant disadvantage. Typically these days, the cost of our labour in manufacturing is about 50 percent more than the hourly rate in the US. Never mind looking at other countries where labour is at a lower rate still.”

Mr Shaw said local challenges that small business leaders are familiar with are part of Micreo’s everyday as well.

“We have a small domestic market and the distances to world markets, although that is perhaps becoming less of a factor now than in the past,” he said. “And then you can’t always find what you need in order to make your product, in the local supply chain.”


Micreo was developed by three microwave engineers – Tim Shaw was one of them – in 2002, with a vision to develop the world’s best products in their field, Today the firm employs more than 70 people at its Brisbane Technology Park headquarters, supplying a variety of electronics and photonics units that protect aircraft, ships and road vehicles from missile and bomb attacks.

Micreo’s main customers are the world’s major defence companies – and they happen to be based in the US and Europe. This was by design, Mr Shaw said, and Micreo had to continually innovate to stay in those markets.

“First, we set out to find an export market niche that suited our ability and our environment,” he said.

“Second, we had to reduce costs as what we produced steadily became more and more expensive, if we did nothing. Therefore we had to do something to reduce our costs.

“Third, we decided to be the best. That takes some confidence. But that’s what you have got to do.

“You have got to go out there and be the best, because how else are you going to get some competitive advantage from where we are in Australia?”

As its technology and products developed to meet emerging threats, Micreo’s successes sharpened the definition of its purpose.

“That’s our mission: we stop missiles and bombs,” Mr Shaw said. “Our products go on to aircraft and they decoy or jam missiles. They also go on to ships and also on to foot soldiers. Our products can help prevent them from being blown up by roadside bombs and the like. We have been pretty successful there as well.”

Right now, Micreo exports more than 90 percent of its products. Mr Shaw said the company has grown at “about 15 percent compound per annum” since it started. It has embarked on a building program to keep up with demand, for example recently doubling the area of its electronics clean room.

Because its contracts are often large, the export balance of income can change dramatically. It can also change when Micreo develops a new product that goes on to enjoy global success.

For example, the company has recently developed an airborne optical link system that is unique – and this may become a blockbuster.

“We think we are the first company in the world to come up with that sort of technology,” Mr Shaw said. “That has recently gone into production and is, we hope, a game changer. We have at least convinced one customer of that.”



Micreo has reached this point of prominence by doing many of the things that manufacturers in Australia must do just to stay in the game.

Mr Shaw said Micreo completed programs such as 5S with QMI Solutions, Six Sigma and Lean Manufacturing. He said the cost of completing these kinds of programs is “relatively low” compared with the potential outcomes.

“The other thing we did ourselves – we went to a paperless manufacturing environment very early on in the piece and it has paid for itself in spades ever since,” Mr Shaw said.

Micreo’s Electronic Document Access (EDA) system has in fact become an inspiration to many other manufacturers. The Queensland Government produced a report on how Micreo managed this process and circulated it to other manufacturers.

“To distribute documents in a paperless environment we introduced touch screens to all our operators, very shortly after they first became available on the market,” Mr Shaw said. “They feed straight into our ERP (enterprise resource planning) system automatically. It even prints out their time sheets. It’s a no-brainer. It saves you at least 5 percent of your product costs.”

One of Micreo’s US customers introduced it to the Six Sigma process.

“They sent out a team of eight people for a couple of weeks, because they really liked our product but they wanted us to build it faster and more efficiently,” Mr Shaw said. “Not often you find customers like that. We have gone on with that and taken it on to Lean and, in fact, our chief of operations is now a black belt in Six Sigma.

“Lean goes a bit further in some ways and not as far in other ways as Six Sigma, but they are very complimentary.”

Mr Shaw highlighted the challenges of growth largely being mitigated by effective communication within and beyond his company.

“Staff communication,” he named as Micreo’s key focus for growth. “When you start a business – although I started with three close friends, and two of the guys I have worked with for more than 25 years, having recruited one of them when he was an intern at university – but after a relatively short while the culture begins to dilutes as you get more people in.

“Metrics and KPIs are very important—if you can’t measure how good you are or what is happening, then you cannot really improve it.”


Micreo has gained an edge through mastering what Mr Shaw identified as ‘lean design’. The company is also focused on protecting itself through technology patents and continually automates by using leading edge equipment.

“Lean design – that’s all about designing the product for manufacture,” Mr Shaw said. “It is much better if you can design the product right in the first place, rather than jumping through hoops to manufacture something which is difficult to manufacture.

“Technology patents – we started the company able to do difficult technology and that was attractive to customers. But along the way we’ve created a few things unique to our company and they have paid for themselves. 

“Automation and the world’s best equipment – you can offset the high labour costs of our environment by introducing those aspects. But not so easy to do because of the money you have to invest, especially as a start-up company.”

But Micreo is always on the lookout for the next innovation or system it can adapt to gain an edge. That may soon include manufacturing in the US.

“We have been keeping an eye on additive manufacturing and that is getting to the point where it can meet the tolerances that we require in our industry,” Mr Shaw said.

“I have also just come back from the US and we are thinking of opening up some manufacturing overseas – we think this will open up the market for us there. It will make it easier for some of our customers to deal with us and increase the size of our business.”

Another edge Mr Shaw sees in Micreo’s arsenal is its climb to the AS9100 standard.

“Now that we are AS9100 – and it is an order of magnitude harder to meet than the ISO9001 standard –  all those complicated records (are easier to access),” Mr Shaw said. “Such as, should a transistor fail (in a particular unit) and you want to trace it, that can be immediately figured out by access to the system.”

Another shrewd company-wide system was to educate everyone, hands-on, in its manufacturing methods and systems.

The entire company was involved in an exercise, modelled using Lego, on manufacturing systems. Teams were asked to complete various manufacturing tasks then shown how to adapt Micreo’s own systems to problem solving.

“At the start of the Lego process you were lucky to get two assembled in the allotted time, but by the end in the same time you were able to do over 100,” Mr Shaw said. “And a similar thing with the design. We produced some software in which we can input our electronic design and it comes up with the number of parts and whether you can find a more efficient way of designing the thing.”

This has had a strong ongoing effect on innovation, with staff using the communication system for problem solving.

“We typically get 50-100 improvement requests, as we call them, every month in our system – a computer-based idea – and we select the best and give them a prize,” Mr Shaw said.

“In terms of engagement, we involve them (staff) in the planning. We want to hear the good and the bad.”

Micreo also sponsors scholarships at local universities, often having students complete work experience periods on site.

“It is hard to measure how much of a cost saving that gives us but it is a very significant thing,” Mr Shaw said.


Mr Shaw said an integral part of progress for Micreo was business planning, however this has morphed in the way it is conducted.

“Before we started the business I wrote a business plan and it was 150 pages. It was very valuable to me but I think I as the only person who read it,” Mr Shaw said.

“Each year we have updated it and it has gotten smaller and smaller. Lately we have this chart that goes up on the wall that is not written by one person but it is written by the entire company.

“We looked at the why, the what and the how … the deep motivation needed because we wanted our products to be the best in the world. Then we looked at the core values. The first of those was high quality, on time and on specification.

“We achieved four years of 100 percent quality and 100 percent delivery on our major customer, with at least $500,000 worth of deliveries to them every month,” he said.

Another constant in Micreo’s philosophy is to work on “the very hard things”. As Mr Shaw put it, “If it was easy, they’d be doing it.

“Me-too is not a recipe for success in the Australian environment. We have to be doing something which is difficult, because otherwise somebody else will do it cheaper.”

Structurally, what Micreo did was embark on a range of surveys to set new directions and initiatives based on the research. They did what they called ‘voice of customer’ research and included risk surveys to come up with predictive success factors.

“ … so we know if we do these things it will make our business more successful,” Mr Shaw said. Micreo picked the top five of those predictive success elements and divided staff up into teams with 10 initiatives for each of those top five factors.

Those teams of five then came up with the actions needed to achieve those top five predictive success elements.

“We are about two thirds of the way through all of those actions and it has been without a doubt our most successful plan and has got the buy-in from everybody,” Mr Shaw said.


Visual reinforcement is a feature of Micreo’s headquarters, as it should be for all developing manufacturers.

Mr Shaw said these visuals included charts of metrics and benchmarking, which are changed weekly in most cases. There is also monitoring of  absenteeism and process, although Mr Shaw said it was hard to capture exactly how much money that saves, “but it is significant”.

There is also a healthy emphasis on the natural competition that emerges among operators in the manufacturing process. Mr Shaw said this was encouraged by Micreo and as a way of helping operators to “lift their game and to find out just what is the best way to do a particular thing”.

Much of that success can also be linked to Micreo’s emphasis on having the world’s best manufacturing equipment.

“Each of our technicians sit in front of about $250,000 worth of equipment,” Mr Shaw said. “That’s one reason why we run shifts and manage a hot seat system.

“With laser welding, we have the only two machines of this type in Australia, that can weld aluminium and various other metals, like titanium, in an inert atmosphere, argon helium environment.

“More recently we have this very precise dye placer,  which picks up items that are half a millimetre square, orients them the right way and does not damage these very delicate gold circuitry that’s on the surface of those chips.”

Micreo has benchmarked itself against more than 200 similar companies worldwide, looking at about 40 different parameters – and it has done so on three occasions from 2006. This was a pleasing exercise to measure progress, rising from what is known as the ‘world class quadrant’ in 2006, higher up that quadrant in 2010 and by 2012’s benchmarking Micreo was clearly towards the very top.

All this effort is paying off as Micreo’s R&D breakthroughs are able to be developed into products rapidly and cost-effectively.

A good example is its latest patent, filed in February 2012, which enabled the company to gain a very large contract from a US defence company.

“There were eight invited bidders of which we were the only non-US bidder – and we got the guernsey,” Mr Shaw said. “Part of that was cost – we were less expensive – but we had a great record with the customer and we also had a great technical proposal.

“This particular invention is the thing that enabled us to get our costs down. By building this item into each article that we ship, we are able to cut our technician time by about 50 percent.”

The most recognisable program Micreo has influenced in Australia is probably the RAAF’s Wedgetail airborne early warning and control aircraft, aboard highly modified Boeing 737-700 aircraft. Much of that technology is now also sold to the US.

Micreo was introduced to the program to provide its very first product that it designed and manufactured – and there are eight of these now per Wedgetail aircraft.

“Australia was the first to get those aircraft – basically a Boeing 737 with what looks like a giant surfboard on top,” Mr Shaw said. “We are still exporting that to our customer overseas.

“Initially it was 70 hours per unit, of touch time, and we have had a couple of goes at re-design and that time has come down to 39 hours. So a major saving in time there … and there has also been some saving in materials through selection of different components and so forth.”

It was Micreo’s success in complex projects like the Wedgetail program that recently won it the Supplier Continuous Improvement Program Gold Award, Australia’s version of the international 21st Century Supply Chain program – one of only three companies in the world to have achieved that status. The award was presented at the Australian Defence + Industry Conference last year.

Mr Shaw said the award recognised the value of the system Micreo had built and how it worked to make the organisations it supplied more efficient as well. There are 800 companies in the UK and Australia assessed by this system, which delves into every aspect of a business.

“That is like a vessel into which you can put all these improvement initiatives,” Mr Shaw said. “It allows you to manage multiple initiatives at the one time. It is a program that was started by our customers, effectively.

“What they wanted was suppliers who could deliver the right product at the right time. When you have an aeroplane sitting at the end of a production line, you don’t want to be held up by one component.

“Just about every aircraft that has ever been manufactured has been late and overweight, so they put a lot of effort into trying to minimise that effect,” Mr Shaw said.

“The most important thing, as far as I am concerned, is the recognition that it gives to the team that I lead – because it takes everyone to contribute


Manufacturing: a true story

By Mike Sullivan

MANUFACTURING as we know it doomed in Australia? Only a matter of time before ‘manufacturing’ moves offshore? You would think it, if your sources of information are mainstream media.

The noise over the demise of the car manufacturing sector in Australia – with Ford, General Motors Holden and Toyota announcing in quick succession that their Australian vehicle assembly plants would all close around 2017 – may have abated, but there remain whispers that his may actually become Australian manufacturing’s greatest opportunity. 

Many of those whispers are about how the government support that propped up the auto manufacturing industry in its ailing years should be redirected to catalyse growth in new sectors where Australian companies have an edge.

The auto companies themselves have become part of that process, with Ford Australia the first to contribute millions of dollars to programs that assist new and growing manufacturers across a range of industries including food, construction, aerospace and sports design-manufacture, in Victoria.

Ford, after all, may be moving away from making cars here, but it is also spending a lot of money on its design and prototyping facility that will remain at Broadmeadows and focus on projects for Ford globally. Ford Australia is, in fact, moving up the global automotive food chain.

So is General Motors Holden, pumping up its own design facility at Fisherman’s Bend to also take on vital design work for its global parent. 

Technology diffusion organisation QMI Solutions chief executive, Gary Christian, said the situation was still very fluid but he believes this is a time of opportunity for Australian manufacturing to re-set and then thrive. He refers to “advancing manufacturing” rather than advanced manufacturing and he sees design-led manufacturing as a key to its future here.

“Is it advanced manufacturing or is it ‘advancing’ manufacturing?” Mr Christian asked. “I think we are advancing it to the next level.”

CSIRO business development and commercial director, Peter Kambouris is on the same wavelength.

“The demise of the automotive industry has had quite a profound effect,” Mr Kambouris said. “But I am actually enthusiastic around the response of the other sectors.

“Look at the minerals and resources sectors – they are driving a lot of our manufacturing anyway, but are below the noise level. Look at the medical devices sector. Look at the specialty equipment guys. 

“Take, for example, Rode microphone, down in Melbourne. They are the leading microphone manufacturer – I personally think – globally. We have a company here called Sutton Tools. They make drill bits. They have been making them since 1917. They are doing something right.

“Look at a local company here (in Brisbane) named Ferra Engineering. Again, they diversified out of automotive a long time ago and they are making the most of their knowledge around manufacturing, managing global supply chains, they have got an export focus, keeping up the technology.” Among other things, Ferra also makes components for the Lockheed F-35 Joint Strike Fighter and has set up a US manufacturing arm.

Stephen Goh, an Engineers Australia national councillor and senior lecturer in mechanical engineering at the University of Southern Queensland, has plenty of first-hand experience with local manufacturers thriving because of they have “innovation in their DNA”.

“One of the companies we are working with at the moment is designing tractors and building tractors in a little town called Toowoomba, of all places,” Dr Goh said. “I can see that the company has high aspirations and they want to be moving towards exporting.

“Some of these tractors have very high tech equipment, some of them remote sensing equipment, control equipment, GPS enabled. They also have machine vision equipment on there as well, to know when the tractor is doing the harvesting, they are actually sensing what is happening with the soil, with the weeds and sensing that and actually destroying he weeds as they go by very precisely killing those weeds. So, amazing advances.

“You can always import tractors from America,  or from China, but they don’t have this ability.  This is 21st century thinking.”

Dr Goh said Australian manufacturing had to focus on areas in which it had a discernible lead – and then extend that lead. He has been working with several companies in the construction industry, helping them to design and build hi-tech, economical and environmentally sound  fast-build homes – where research shows there is massive worldwide demand. Australia has a lead in this area from working in modeular homes and fast-build mining communities.

“In the modular and fabricated housing sector,” Dr Goh said Australia had an existing edge. “This is a fairly cottage based industry currently and we are looking to progress. 

“Construction is still using fairly traditional methods and it is like building inside a ship – it is just a big ship – and I think (the current industry) is not quite there as it is not using some of the sophisticated  tools available in modern manufacturing. I think it is about moving from construction to manufacturing.

“There is technology involved, like using robotics and other things to improve efficiency and lower the cost base,” Dr Goh said. “But also, with regards to streamlining the processes as well.

“I think the whole supply chain needs to be investigated further. There is plenty of opportunity to lift that cottage industry out from where it is at the moment into the 21st century in terms of hi-tech manufacturing.

“My personal thinking is that you’ve got flat pack Ikea furniture – and you can have a flat pack house ready to assemble on site, or literally transported to the site, ready to move in.”

Both Mr Kambouris and Dr Goh mentioned the need for Australian industry to embrace advances in robotics and new materials technologies – with breakthroughs in both these areas being made in Australia at present.

“Another area is agriculture,” Dr Goh said, mentioning the move to agricultural robotics being driven out of Queensland. “The potential there is enormous for the manufacturing industry.”

He said Australia had to stay out of the large volume production mindset and focus on high-quality high-return niches.

“Our cost base does not warrant us to be a global supplier for a fairly commoditised product,” Dr Goh said. “ However, in saying that, Wagners (a multi-industry Darling Downs-based company, known for recently building its own airport at Wellcamp and for materials development, producing composite power poles and bridges)  do specialise in niche product. The products no-one wants to design for. Often they are one-off or two-off.

“They might make significant volumes of one or two pieces, but the design aspects are on a one-off basis. Just say a Chinese manufacturer might be able to manufacture a fibre-composite bridge that’s 10m long – and that’s all they can do from that factory. The Wagners say, we can do 10m yes, but we can also do 20m or we can do 50m … we can do 2m wide we can do 5m wide … and so on.

“I think it is about the design ability and the manufacturing capability. I know a lot of manufacturers around the world are catching up, but we are still winning in that space.”

Mr Kambouris said, “I think nanotech and biotech will be enablers to those key companies.

“The ability to be flexible and agile and adjust to the marketplace is where some of the information systems are that we do quite well in: so communication, sensor and sensor network, plus automation and robotics will allow those companies to utilise the technical material innovations with that informational overlap to help them avoid the costs that others keep on absorbing.

“Allow them to have an extended supply chain that they can manage. And when they make that bridge, they make it once, right the first time, so they do not have to make it two or three times,” Mr Kambouris said.

“When you look at the cost of doing business in Australia and compare labour costs, our labour is not that different to what is in Germany or Japan. So there is something else happening.

“I think a way of addressing that is with the right technical solutions and with the right information layer with it, we can make that bridge once and in the right time and have it made and certified and out the door two or three times faster than we would currently do.

“So in a current costing we might say cost it out to a 10-week process,” Mr Kambouris said. “What if we could get it down to five weeks? What if we could get it to two weeks?

“We are not going to change the nanotech or biotech in there, we are just going to change the way we use the information, to make certain we do it once and do it right the first time.”

Mr Kambouris said there were some very prominent rays of sunshine in Australian manufacturing right now, some of which have come about because of official concern over the demise of the auto factories. He said the industry-led manufacturing innovation precincts – such as those for the food industry and advanced manufacturing (META) were good examples, with more to come.

“I like the way that the precincts have been set up, it’s very useful having industry led outcomes,” Mr Kambouris said. “Not commenting on the precincts themselves, I like the way they have been set up with the industry-led partnership that identifies a need for them and then simply outsources or contracts out the R&D action. In the past it has very much been led by, ‘Have I got an idea for you’.

“We still have the ideas but we can frame them to address that key market requirement. It’s either addressing a cost issue or a hidden cost, or providing a new line of business. It just makes sense.”

Dr Goh said while Australian manufacturing had a long way to go, it should also go a very long way.

“The community in general does not know that we have a manufacturing industry outside the automotive sector,” he said. “It’s about selling the good story around what’s out there.

“We have Cook Medical. We have Wagners in Toowooomba, Russell in Toowoomba. We have a number of global companies based in Australia. Many factories are well equipped to produce products that are exported and utilised not just in this country but around the world.

“We are punching above our weight in many respects,” Dr Goh said. “ I think it is about translating many of these types of successes into everyday language and everyone talking about them.

“It’s not just about having an awards night …. It needs to go into the mainstream.”


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